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White Paper "BioMaRe: Biomass calculator"
White Paper "BioMaRe: Biomass calculator" For transparent and efficient cultivation of micro-organisms

In biotechnology, the content and growth of biomass is an important process variable. There are different ways of quantifying this directly in the reactor. The methods currently used have advantages and disadvantages with regard to optimal process control and costs. This white paper demonstrates how biomass concentration and growth in biotech processes can be calculated using soft sensors and existing measurement signals.

White paper: Minimizing risk SIL for the chemical industry
White paper: Minimizing risk SIL for the chemical industry

This white paper has the following aims:

  • What is SIL, why is the topic relevant for plant operators, and what are the common misunderstandings?
  • What do certificates mean and how do you read them correctly?
  • To what extent do durable components offer a helpful advantage?
White Paper: Digitalisation – new opportunities to optimise systems in the process industry
White Paper: Digitalisation – new opportunities to optimise systems in the process industry

This white paper covers the following topics:

  • Digitalisation as an opportunity in the process industry
  • How decoupling software and hardware opens up completely new opportunities for already established technologies, based on the example of the Festo Motion Terminal
  • Why do manufacturers, OEMs and system operators obtain very tangible benefits from analysing the data sent via the IoT gateway to the cloud – and what does this mean for their business?
A Practical Energy Efficiency Solution for Life Science Utilizing Industry 4.0
A Practical Energy Efficiency Solution for Life Science Utilizing Industry 4.0

“Internet of Things” (IoT) and “Industry 4.0” (I4.0) are buzzwords in the process manufacturing and automation world, with far-reaching benefits understood by most at a high level. But, what relevant and practical data and understanding can I4.0 bring your company in everyday operations, such as monitoring compressed air consumption, process optimization, enabling energy efficiencies, and providing preventative diagnostics?

White Paper: Four Myths About Pneumatics – And One Key Advantage
White Paper: Four Myths About Pneumatics – And One Key Advantage Why pneumatic actuators pay off in the water industry

This white paper has the following aims:

  • To examine reservations that are frequently mentioned in connection with pneumatics: are pneumatic actuators really more easily damaged, expensive over their lifetime and higher on energy consumption compared to electric actuators? The reality is more complex.
  • To provide concrete tips and hints for users in the water industry: why a lifetime calculation is a good idea, how leakage can be avoided – and some of the advantages of pneumatics that may not be obvious at first glance.
Festo AG & Co. KG bistable valves for safety-related applications
Festo AG & Co. KG bistable valves for safety-related applications Technical Report - TR-300004

Summary:
Technical Reports 2 and 3 [1-2] and DGUV Information FB HM-076 [3] already explained the circumstances under which bistable valves can be used in safety-related applications. The present report links these reports to the current product portfolio of Festo AG & Co. KG. The suitability of the bistable valves listed for safety-related applications can be confirmed taking the previous series of technical reports and respective technical documentation of the individual components into consideration.

Bistable valves in safety-related applications. An example.
Bistable valves in safety-related applications. An example. Technical report TR-300003

Summary:
Due to their bistable characteristics, bistable valves in certain applications present the user with tasks that seem to be difficult to solve. This application example is to show how a solution can be developed systematically taking the various operating states and operating transitions into account. Considering the various hazards in the various operating statuses of the machine appears a sensible approach to finding the solution. They require chronologically successive, different reactions of the safety circuit to implement the required protective measures.

White Paper: Saving process costs with software support
White Paper: Saving process costs with software support Part 3: Practical tips for phases 5 – 8

Product life cycles are becoming ever shorter. Less and less time is available, whether for development of an installation or its possible
modernisation. Companies and their employees therefore try to continuously optimise their processes as that is the only way they can
remain competitive and deal with increasingly demanding challenges.
The software tools provided by system and component suppliers can support them in this; they have been available for quite some time and
their number is constantly growing. The short tips in this white paper are intended as a guide to selecting tools which will help you to save
valuable time.

White Paper: Saving process costs with software support
White Paper: Saving process costs with software support Part 2: Practical tips for phase 4

Product life cycles are becoming ever shorter. Less and less time is available, whether for development of an installation or its possible
modernisation. Companies and their employees therefore try to continuously optimise their processes as that is the only way they can
remain competitive and deal with increasingly demanding challenges.
The software tools provided by system and component suppliers can support them in this; they have been available for quite some time and
their number is constantly growing. The short tips in this white paper are intended as a guide to selecting tools which will help you to save
valuable time.

White Paper: Saving process costs with software support
White Paper: Saving process costs with software support Part 1: Practical tips for phases 1 – 3

Product life cycles are becoming ever shorter. Less and less time is available, whether for development of an installation or its possible
modernisation. Companies and their employees therefore try to continuously optimise their processes as that is the only way they can
remain competitive and deal with increasingly demanding challenges.
The software tools provided by system and component suppliers can support them in this; they have been available for quite some time and
their number is constantly growing. The short tips in this white paper are intended as a guide to selecting tools which will help you to save
valuable time.

White paper - Controlling process valves and considering functional safety (SIL)
White paper - Controlling process valves and considering functional safety (SIL)

Functional safety in the process industry is a topic that has very much moved centre stage since IEC 61508 came into force. It is frequently only indicated by the abbreviation SIL. But what exactly is SIL and how can it be used to control process valves?

White Paper: Piezo Technology in Pneumatics Valves
White Paper: Piezo Technology in Pneumatics Valves

This white paper provides you with answers to the following questions:

  • How does piezo technology work, what is the principle behind it?
  • What advantages does piezo technology offer?
  • In which industry sectors and for which applications are piezo valves the technology of the future?
  • Introduction to several versions of piezo valves

 

Dexterous  Manipulation Using Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning
Dexterous Manipulation Using Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning LearningGripper

On a novel pneumatic four-finger gripper with three degrees of freedom per finger we apply reinforcement learning to learn dexter- ous manipulation of objects. In order to reduce the search space, we implemented hierarchical learning on two levels. Low-level learning is used for basic movement primitives like grabbing, lifting or rotation of an object around three cartesian axes, whereas in high-level learning we use the already learned low-level actions to find a policy that ena- bles the gripper to move a target point on the surface of a sphere to the top position in a few seconds. It turns out that Q-learning with a finite state- and action space solves the learning task very well.

The SLS-generated Soft Robotic Hand
The SLS-generated Soft Robotic Hand An Integrated Approach using Additive Manufacturing and Reinforcement Learning

To develop
a robotic system for a complex task
is a time- consuming process. Merging
methods available today, a new ap- proach for a faster realization of a multi-finger soft robotic hand is presented here. This
paper introduces a robotic hand with four fingers and 12 Degrees of Freedom
(DoFs) using bellow actuators. The hand is generated via Selective
Laser Sintering (SLS), an Additive Manufacturing method. The complex task execution of a specific action,
i.e. the lifting, rotating and precise positioning of a handling- object with this robotic hand, is used to structure
the whole develop- ment process. To
validate reliable functionality of the hand from the beginning, each development
stage is SLS-generated and the targeted task execution is trained
via Reinforcement Learning, a machine learning approach.
Optimization points are subsequently derived
and fed back into the hardware development. With this Concurrent
Engineering strategy a fast development of this robotic
hand is possible. The paper
outlines the relevant key strategies and gives insight into
the design process. At the end, the
final hand with its capabilities is presented and discussed.

Inventing a Micro Aerial Vehicle inspired by the mechanics of dragonfly flight
Inventing a Micro Aerial Vehicle inspired by the mechanics of dragonfly flight BionicOpter

Dragonfly flight is unique: Dragonflies can manoeuvre in all directions, glide without having to beat their wings and hover in the air. Their ability to move each of their four wings independently ena- bles them to slow down and turn abruptly, to accelerate swiftly and even to fly backwards. We looked into the mechanics of the dragonfly flight and managed to transfer its flight dynamics into an ultralight flying object: the Bionicüpter. With a wingspan of 63 cm and a body length of 44 cm, the model dragonfly weighs just 175 g. A brushless motor actuates the four wings and is used to alter the flapping fre- quency. Eight servo motors allow the amplitude and the twisting angle of each wing to be changed independently making the Bionicüpter almost as agile and fast as its natural role model. Here we present

how dragonfly flight dynamics can inspire future design of MAVs.

Artificial hinged-wing bird with active torsion and partially linear kinematics
Artificial hinged-wing bird with active torsion and partially linear kinematics SmartBird

An artificial bird is introduced which was developed using two new

features in biologically-inspired flight, active torsion and partially linear

kinematics. Active torsion rests on well established theoretical

predictions in unsteady aerodynamics. The concept of partially linear

kinematics is inspired by zoological observations on flying locusts.

When the wings flap upwards, the servomotor for the active torsion

turns the outer wing from a positive angle of incidence within

a short fraction of the flapping period into a negative angle of incidence.

Between the turning points the angle of torsion remains

constant. Numerical calculations confirm the expected benefits

compared to passive torsion.

White Paper: Pneumatics or electrics
White Paper: Pneumatics or electrics Important criteria when choosing technology

This white paper describes the important points to bear in

mind when it comes to choosing the right technology.

White paper Food safety: food quality through high compressed air quality
White paper Food safety: food quality through high compressed air quality

Great care must always be taken when compressed air comes into contact with food, because compressed air is not clean by nature.   On the contrary, solids and particles are present almost everywhere in the form of dust in various concentrations. Water, in the form of natural atmospheric humidity, is released in large quantities when the compressed air cools down. And thus compressed air quality in accordance with the requirements of the respective application provides best possible safety for foods, consumers and food producers.

 

This white paper includes information on:

- Compressed air preparation and compressed air quality classes

- Filter cascades for typical applications

White Paper: The future role of ethernet and the trend to decentralised control solutions
White Paper: The future role of ethernet and the trend to decentralised control solutions field bus / Industrial Ethernet

The driving force behind progress in Industrial automation in the last 20 years has without doubt been the networking of automation products via bus systems. The importance of industrial communication within machines and installations is increasing exponentially, especially in the context of recent Industry 4.0 (Internet of Things, IoT) discussions. Networking is decentralised from its starting point – communication at control system level – down to the connection of front-end devices, sensors and actuators, which perhaps already feature decentralised intelligence.

White paper: Plants based on the Lego principle
White paper: Plants based on the Lego principle Modular automation with valve terminals

Smaller batches and different types of product in the same plant – these are the market demands to which more and more manufacturers in

the process industries need to adjust. The answer is plants based on the “Lego principle”. Users can add modules or switch them off in line

with requirements. But this is only possible with modular automation.

White Paper: Bearing Technology
White Paper: Bearing Technology Key considerations for designers looking at bearing systems with linear axes

This White Paper contains information on:

  • Use of electro mechanical axes with slides
  • Possibilities of different slide bearings with single or double rail (giuding)
  • Influences on lifetime, different guiding alternatives and design features
White Paper: Series products for cleanrooms
White Paper: Series products for cleanrooms

What is a cleanroom (definition, norms, standards)?
How are products tested for suitability for cleanrooms?
In which areas and applications are cleanrooms necessary?
Under which conditions are series products suitable for cleanrooms?

White Paper - Function integration
White Paper - Function integration Function integration saves time all round

If electrical and pneumatic subsystems are separate, it can often take a lot of time to construct relatively simple systems in terms of system design, purchasing, logistics, installation and  commissioning. Function integration is the answer here, allowing a saving of time throughout the value creation chain. This White Paper shows you how valve terminals can boost efficiency and productivity throughout your company.

White paper: Comparative evaluation of automation concepts for water industry systems
White paper: Comparative evaluation of automation concepts for water industry systems Tools for optimising life cycle costs

Energy efficiency and the optimisation of specific production costs are important commercial and business challenges which we must face for a variety of reasons. Energy-efficient technologies are often more expensive than traditional technologies in the investment phase. However, measures to increase efficiency and reduce life cycle costs (LCC) throughout the entire life cycle of a production plant usually pay off.

White Paper: Tips for overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) in food and beverage production
White Paper: Tips for overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) in food and beverage production

Maximum availability is not something that happens by chance, it’s the result of forward-looking action. Processing food economically and at the right time is absolutely essential. Otherwise there is a risk that production has to be stopped and raw materials are wasted.

Taking overall equipment effectiveness into consideration provides clear guidance on how to maximise productivity, and thus on economic operation of the system. But which influencing factors affect overall equipment effectiveness and how to get started on the path to
optimisation?

White paper: Reduce energy costs in compressed air systems by up to 60%
White paper: Reduce energy costs in compressed air systems by up to 60%

In order to survive in a tough competitive environment, many companies are searching for ways to make savings in their production. Such savings can often be found in their existing compressed air systems, which have generally been in place for years. Up to 60% of energy costs can be saved through optimisation at both the production facility and system level.

White Paper: Cartesian handling systems
White Paper: Cartesian handling systems

This white paper contains information on:

  • Functional differences between the various systems
  • Key factors and selection aids for selecting a handling system
  • Cartesian handling systems in an overview

 

 

 

White Paper: Quality and an attractive price - The right way to buy valves/valve terminals -
White Paper: Quality and an attractive price - The right way to buy valves/valve terminals -

The global market for valves and valve terminals today is so large that it is almost impossible to maintain an overview. Often, price seems the only buying criterion. But it pays to look more closely, particularly with regard to higher productivity and process reliability. Users of Festo's attractively priced and long-lasting high-quality valves benefit in tough everyday practical applications from the meticulous development processes, including numerous simulation tests and the correct choice of technologies and materials.

 

 This White Paper provides information on:

 

  • Care pays for itself: the development process of valves and valve terminals
  • Caution: not all manufacturer data is comparable 1 to 1!
  • Small differences with a great impact: how to choose the right valves/valve terminals

 

White Paper: Piston spool valves and poppet valves
White Paper: Piston spool valves and poppet valves A technical comparison of available solenoid valves

Why should you choose your valves carefully?

 

The increasing demands placed on valve technology in recent years have led to a formidable extension of the range of available technologies and valve types, models, and properties. The most commonly used are poppet valves and piston spool valves. Nowadays, there is hence a much wider choice of customised valve technology to successfully plan a project. However, choosing the right parts for the application at hand requires comprehensive knowledge and an accurate appraisal by the consulting engineer or technician. This White Paper is intended to offer you a brief overview.

 

This white paper contains information on:

 

  • An introduction to valve technologies
  • Poppet valves, piston spool valves and the cartridge principle – what you need to know
  • Which valve type suits you best? A valve selection aid
White Paper: Cleaning is a Must!
White Paper: Cleaning is a Must!

Cleaning is an absolute must if foodstuffs are to be produced hygienically. The highest priority here is afforded to avoiding the spread of germs and eliminating foreign particles. Proper cleaning reduces the downtime of your plant and systems, while protecting the consumer and your brand.

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